- Calculation of Dose Dosage or Insult Process
CBRN environment and scenario characterisation inputs are used to determine the initial exposure, or quantity of CBRN agent or effect, associated with each icon. Adjustments to this amount are then made for each icon to estimate the final dose/dosage/insult received by individuals at each icon. The calculations that are required to estimate this adjusted value depend on both the type of the agent or effect and the various parameters specifying the interaction between the individuals and CBRN environment, the characterisation of the use of warning and response, and the physical protection. For example, the availability of physical protection may reduce an individual’s final dose/dosage/insult value. These final dose/dosage/insult values are then an input to the next phase of the methodology, namely “Human Response Estimation. In the methodology the following factors are specified to estimate the final dose/dosage/insult values *Exposure factors such as breathing rate, and activity level. *Shielding factors which provide a passive form of protection against CBRN agents and effects. For example, for aerosolized chemical and biological agents, the air exchange rate associated with the chosen building or vehicle type is used in the ventilation shielding factor calculation. *Characterisation of warning and response process In [NATO AMedP-8(C), 2011], warning is defined as a command-approved statement that a CBRN attack is likely, is about to occur, or is presumed to have occurred. Response is defined as the associated decision to take one or more mitigating actions; the mitigating actions themselves are considered in separate components of the dose/dosage/insult calculation methodology. For the characterisation of the warning and response, the user should determine both the availability within the scenario, and if available the time at which it occurs. This time is user defined and may be tied to scenario-specific events such as the time the first individual is exposed or the time at which some percentage of the individuals within the scenario become ill. In all cases, warning and response should be measured from the beginning of the attack. *Characterisation of the use of physical protection Physical protection is the active use of physical barriers to prevent or reduce exposure to CBRN agents or effects. The methodology distinguishes between physical protection (initiated by command decision and typically triggered by warning) and shielding, which is an inherent characteristic of an icon related to its location.