Reference document

Research and Innovation Processes
It is a major part of military science to find methods of defeating the enemy with available capabilities using existing and new concepts. Many military organizations maintains a dual track for capability development with accelerated innovation programmes designed to address current needs and the longer more traditional path tied to formal acquisition development. The Research and Innovation Processes are composed of a collection of business processes that are implemented and executed to support the research and accelerated capability development in support of military needs and advancing overall security capability. The outcomes of research are primarily used in support of the establishment of new or enhancement of existing capabilities designed for military and security purposes. An additional but secondary consideration of military research is technology dual-use capability to the broader environment or commercial sectors. Faced with rapid technology changes, the military continues to support broad research as a safeguard against technological surprise typically through a strong partnerships with academia and the commercial sector. The typical research and innovation processes is based on the following sub-processes * Determination of research areas of interest. * Management of the research portfolio and risks. * Initiation of research program or project. * Conduct of a research program or project ** Execution of incremental research and development. ** Evaluation of research results (continue or stop research, or move the results forward to develop capability). * Exploitation or transition of research results. Military research projects are inherently risky as they explores innovative, high-risk and disruptive technologies and concepts. Due to the high-risk nature of military research portfolios proper risk management strategies - such as conducting research projects iteratively - are typically applied. A typical research project is started by exploratory or feasibility studies that determine the scientific, technical and commercial merit and feasibility of new ideas. The later iterations (scientific research to prototype) are the major research and development effort The Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are often used to determine the maturity of research results and when the risks are low enough to move a new technology into mainstream capability development.