- Land Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Process
Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) is fundamental to the command, control, communication, computers, and ISR (C4ISR) function, which is defined as, “The provision of information and intelligence to commanders that enables decision superiority necessary to execute the commander’s intent, along with the appropriate level of situational awareness, to the point of achieving the desired effect. From a LCC perspective, the NATO C4ISR function must also be compatible with and be able to support and operate in tandem with the inter-agency ISR infrastructure to afford seamless and timely sharing of information. This, in turn, enables the LCC to better support the effects-based targeting process across the whole spectrum of comprehensive operations. It is common for subordinate units to not have assigned ISR assets; they will most likely have to bid to the LCC for ISR support by submitting a SPTREQ for non-airborne ISR capabilities or an AIRSUPREQ for airborne ISR capabilities. The SPTREQ/AIRSUPREQ should be submitted with the draft CONOPS to the J35 and copied to the J2-CCIRM. While the J35 is staffing the CONOPS, the J2-CCIRM will be ascertaining if the request is valid, if it is in accordance with the JTF and LCC’s intent and guidance, and whether the request can be supported from within the LCC’s order of battle (ORBAT) of assigned ISR assets that are supporting the collection plan. A. If the SPTREQ/AIRSUPREQ is supported by the J2-CCIRM and if spare capacity exists within the LCC ORBAT, ISR assets may be detached to the SOTGs/SOATGs under delegated C2 relationships for short durations to support specific missions. B. If there is insufficient capacity or inappropriate capabilities within the LCC ORBAT to fulfil the SPTREQ/ AIRSUPREQ, the J2-CCIRM can request the required ISR support by submitting the SPTREQ/ AIRSUPREQ to the JTF or other components (dependent on which HQ is designated as the DARB coordinating authority) for DARB consideration. The DARB is the coordinating authority for all theatre ISR assets but does not have authority over ISR assets that are considered organic to a component commander. J2-CCIRM staff members who submit SPTREQs/AIRSUPREQs for additional ISR support should evaluate the likelihood of their requests being approved within the context of the JFC’s direction and guidance outlined in the JCO, the published JPTL, and the JFC’s ISR priorities. Alternative plans should be considered to compensate for low priority requests that may be denied based on available ISR capacity. SPTREQs/AIRSUPREQs for ISR support must be based on the information requirements (desired ISR product, type of sensor required, duration of mission) and not on the specific platform that is perceived to be the best fit to collect the information. The CCIRM process will have more flexibility, and therefore a higher likelihood of meeting the request, if effect and capability are requested rather than specific units, assets, or air platforms. Once the CONOPS has been authorized, it is handed over to the J33 to monitor and assess during execution. This process is mirrored with the ISR support. Once a SPTREQ/AIRSUPREQ has been approved by the DARB, it will be handed over to the J3-ISR to monitor the execution of this part of the collection plan with the J2-CCIRM, taking a more holistic view of the entire collection plan. Should an ISR contingency occur, the J3-ISR, in liaison with the J2-CCIRM, will monitor and assist as required to ensure the collection plan is maintained. Once assigned an ISR mission, LCC staff members and subordinate unit commanders should exchange as much information as practically possible with the supporting ISR unit (while still retaining OPSEC). Understanding the task empowers the ISR mission commander with the ability to manage contingency collection plans should changes occur in the pre-planned collection scenario. Mission CONOPS, TIPs, target grid reference graphics, etc., are all examples of information that will be of assistance to the ISR mission commander when conducting the pre-planned collection plan or when executing a contingent collection plan. If electronic warfare capabilities are planned to support the mission, careful consideration of the effect on friendly forces activity must be undertaken (including interference with electronic forms of finding, fixing, and tracking the enemy). By virtue of their height above the ground and the line of sight that this provides, EW can often cross into adjacent formations’ AOOs causing unplanned and detrimental effects.