ISO/IEC 10746-3 2009 specifies the required characteristics that qualify distributed processing as open, i.e. the constraints to which ODP standards must conform. It uses the descriptive techniques from ISO/IEC 10746-2 to define five ISO/IEC 10746 viewpoints. These viewpoints are subdivisions of the specification of a whole system, established to bring together the particular pieces of information relevant to some stakeholder or particular area of concern. ISO/IEC 10746-3 2009 also defines a taxonomy for functions and structures to realize distribution transparencies.