Substantial computing power is required to encode MPEG data in real time. MPEG-1 is optimal for a variety of data rates up to 1.5 megabits per second. MPEG-1 compression techniques are geared to asymmetric applications where the decompression process is extremely faster than the compression process. Applications making heavy use of this technology include electronic publishing, video games, and delivery of movies. It is also used extensively for downloading and uploading video on the World Wide Web. The shell format is interoperable across platforms and considered to be platform independent.