Reference document

Policy Development Processes
Security and Defence policy is public policy dealing with multinational security and the military. Security is a much broader concept than defence. In the general sense, ‘security’ includes defence (or military endeavors), homeland security and international security efforts - hence better covering the internal/external security continuum. Although the goal must ultimately be to cover common security at large, this taxonomy focuses on defence policy. Defence policy is necessary as a second level of protection in case diplomacy fails to solve international security problems. Providing (defence) policy and military advice to the government is a key to ensure that it is in accord - and in no way contrary - to other security strategies drawn up by the government. Defence policy identifies threats of hostility and aggression based on intelligence analysis, and defines military scope of national security, defence alliances, combat readiness, the defense enterprise and its military forces and the use of military technology. It also defines the national defense strategy, the “when” of committing military forces and the strategic posture, the “how”, towards any possible threats. The more options a defence policy provides to the government, the better it is considered in its formulation. The defence strategy and military doctrine are developed though strategic policy and capability development processes. Defence policy comprises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision-making and strategic goals, such as when and how to commit military forces. Typically the Minister of Defence is the primary decision-maker for the national defence policy. Defence policy is created through making important organisational decisions, including the identification of priorities and different alternatives such as defence personnel and technology programs or budget priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have on the overall development. Defence policies can be understood as political, management, financial, administrative and executable mechanisms arranged to reach explicit military goals and objectives. There is no general process on how to develop defence policy, nevertheless there is a set of are common activities that many nations use when developing defence policy.